The Facts about Rodenticides

By Roger A. Baldwin and Terrell P. Salmon


Abhat, D.  2010.  A poisonous dilemma: when rodenticides move beyond their target species.  The Wildlife Professional 4:28–29.
California Agricultural Statistics.  2008. (accessed 12 July, 2010).

Engeman, R. M., and G. W. Witmer.  2000.  Integrated management tactics for predicting and alleviating pocket gopher (Thomomys spp.) damage to conifer reforestation plantings.  Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5:41–55.

Erickson, W., and D. Urban.  2004.  Potential risks of nine rodenticides to birds and nontarget mammals:  a comparative approach.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 192 pp.

Hornbaker, V. L., and R. A. Baldwin.  2010.  Impact on vertebrate IPM practices from EPA’s Rodenticide Risk Mitigation decision.  Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 24:191–194.

Lima, L. L., and T. P. Salmon.  2010.  Assessing some potential environmental impacts from agricultural anticoagulant uses.  Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 24:199–203.

Marsh, R. E.  1998.  Historical review of ground squirrel crop damage in California.  International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 42:93–99.

McMillin, S. C., R. C. Hosea, B. F. Finlayson, B. L. Cypher, and A. Mekebri.  2008.  Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in an urban population of the San Joaquin kit Fox.  Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 23:163–165.

Pimentel, D., R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison.  2005.  Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States.  Ecological Economics 52:273–288.

Salmon, T. P., D. C. Stroud, and A. Kennedy.  1982.  Computers and vertebrate pest control.  Proceedings of the Great Plains Wildlife Damage Control Workshop 5:63–68.

Shwiff, S. A., K. Gebhardt, and K. N. Kirkpatrick.  2009.  The economic impact of bird and rodent damage to California crops:  an economic evaluation of the losses caused by bird and rodent damage and selected benefits of pest control expenditures.  Report prepared for the California Department of Food and Agriculture, Vertebrate Pest Control Research Advisory Committee, 35pp.

Silberhorn, E. M., D. L. Schnabel, and T. P. Salmon.  2006.     Ecological Risk Assessment for Use of Agricultural Rodenticides in California.  Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 22:458–462.

Sterner, R. T.  2008.  The IPM paradigm:  vertebrates, economics, and uncertainty.  Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 23:194–200.

Additional Resources
UC IPM Pest Notes.—Valuable resource for information pertaining to many wildlife pest issues for California.
UCCE Vertebrate Pest Control Education Videos—A resource for all aspects related to California ground squirrels, pocket gophers, and meadow voles.
The Vertebrate Pest Control Handbook.—Contains extensive information on many subjects pertaining to wildlife pests in California including information on general biology of California birds and mammals, laws and regulations, the role of wildlife in spreading disease, and information on the use of toxicants and fumigants for controlling wildlife pests in California.

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